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History of Rome

Roman Colosseum

'The Roman Colosseum'

History, Facts and Information about Ancient Rome
The content of this article provides interesting facts and information about the History of Rome. For ease of access the History of Rome is divided into just the categories - the founding of Rome and the Kingdom of Rome, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. People, places and events are still listed in chronological order with the relevant dates where appropriate.

Timeline of Roman Emperors

History of Rome - The Founding of Rome and theKingdom of Rome
History of Rome providing fast facts and interesting information about the founding of Rome. The section on the Ancient History of Italy details the early inhabitants of the country. According to legend Rome is said to have been founded by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus on the 21st of April, 753. The city of Rome was named after Romulus. The Kingdom of Rome is established by Romulus whose reign is followed by six other Etruscan Kings - this period is therefore often referred to as the Rule of the seven Kings of Rome. The Roman Senate was established as an advisory body to the Etruscan kings. The Kings were eventually replaced with a republic (a Republic is a country without a king or emperor - the people who rule a republic are elected).

  • 753509 BC: Rule of the Seven Kings of Rome - The history of the Roman Kingdom

  • 753 BC: According to legend, Romulus and Remus found Rome

  • 753-716: 37 year reign of Romulus which includes the War with the Sabines. Romulus brought the Sabines and Romans under one ruler

  • 716-673: Reign of Numa Pompilius. Numa Pompilius erected the temple of Janus in Rome. It was a time of peace and prosperity in the history of Rome

  • 673-641: Reign of Tullus Hostilius which includes War with the Etruscans and the establishment of the Roman Patricians and Plebeians (Plebs)

  • 641-616: Reign of Ancus Marcius and War with the Latins

  • 616-578: Reign of Tarquinius Priscus which saw the increase of the plebs, the senate and the Vestal Virgins

  • 578-534: Reign of Servius Tullius

  • 534-509: Reign of Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud, the last king of Rome) and War with the Volscians

  • Foundation of the temple on the Capitoline Hill.

  • His despotic reign earned him the title superbus (meaning proud or haughty)

  • 509: Rome replaced the Etruscan rulers with a Republic during the History of Rome

History of Rome - The Roman Republic
History of Rome providing fast facts and interesting information about the Roman Republic. The Roman Republic was the ancient Roman state which started in 509 BC and lasted until Augustus assumed power in 27 BC. The Roman Republic was governed by an elected Senate. The 300 members of the Roman senate, all from aristocratic families, grew in power. The senators were appointed for life. The senators selected new senators to replace any who died. Senators also appointed two senators to become joint heads of state for a year. These heads of state were first known as praetors and later as consuls. Each had the power of veto on any action of the other and to avoid serious stalemates in a crisis the constitution of the republic provided for another more powerful office with the title of dictator. But a Dictator could only have power for a period not exceeding six months.  The Plebeians (Plebs) protested at their total lack of power and exclusion form any benefits of the Republic. Their protests led to the creation of two powerful new officials called the tribunes of the people to safeguard plebeian rights. Dissatisfaction with the Senate led to civil wars and the ultimate decline of the Roman Republic. The decline of the Roman Republic culminated in a brief dictatorship by Julius Caesar and the fall of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

  • 509 BC: Rome replaced the Etruscan rulers with a Republic during the History of Rome

  • 387 BC: Gallic invasion of Italy

  • 390 BC : Destruction of Rome by the Gauls

  • 451-449.: The Decemvirate formed - a body of 10 magistrates

  • 343-341 BC: 1st Samnite War

  • 326-304 BC: 2nd Samnite War

  • 98 to 290 BC: 3rd Samnite War

  • 264-146: The Punic Wars - a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage

  • 202 BC: Battle of Zama, Scipio defeats Hannibal

  • 215 to 148 BC: Macedonian Wars (Four Wars) with Northern Greece

  • 146 BC: The consul Lucius Mummius razes Corinth, marking the end of free Greece

  • 133-132 BC : The tribune Tiberius Gracchus unleashes the mob with promises of food and lands. He is murdered by members of the senate whose wealth and power is threatened

  • 112-105 BC: The Jugurthine War with Numidia.

  • 107 BC : Consul Gaius Marius makes dramatic reforms to the Roman army in the History of Rome

  • 91 BC: Drusus, another tribune proposing reforms, is murdered in Rome, triggering the Social War

  • 90BC: Civil War in Rome

  • 88 BC: Sulla marches on Rome and becomes Dictator

  • 78 BC : Death of Sulla

  • 73 BC: Outbreak of Third Servile War, led by the slave and gladiator Spartacus

  • 71 BC: Revolt of Spartacus crushed by Pompey and Crassus

  • 70 BC: Crassus and Pompey become joint consuls

  • 59 BC: Julius Caesar becomes consul an important event in the History of Rome

  • 59 - 53BC: Pompey, Marcus Licinius Crassus Gaius Julius Caesar dominate the Late Roman republic through a political alliance called the First Triumvirate

  • 58 BC : Julius Caesar campaigns in Gaul

  • 55 BC : Julius Caesar attempts to invade Britain

  • 49 BC: Caesar's army crosses the Rubicon and Civil War begins between Caesar and Pompey

  • Julius Caesar is victorious, becomes dictator and then conquers Gaul

  • 47 BC : Caesar invades Egypt and appoints Cleopatra queen

  • 44 BC: Julius Caesar is assassinated; Marcus Antony controls Rome

  • 43 BC : The Second Triumvirate established between Octavian (Julius Caesar's adoptive son) and Marc Antony

  • 42 BC : Octavian takes control of Italy

  • 31 BC Battle of Actium, Octavian defeats Marc Antony and Queen Cleopatra

  • 27BC: Octavian, became, as Augustus Caesar, the first emperor of Rome and the Roman Republic comes to an end - The Fascinating History of Rome

Gaius Marius
Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar is assassinated
Augustus Caesar

History of Rome- The Roman Empire
History of Rome providing fast facts and interesting information about the Roman Empire. The 500-year-old Roman Republic had been weakened by civil wars. Octavian the adoptive son of the dictator Julius Caesar is given the title 'Augustus' by the Roman Senate and becomes the first emperor of Rome - The Rise of the Roman Empire begins.

  • 27 BC to AD 68: Julian-Claudian Dynasty- Augustus Caesar, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero. Notable events of this period included the lost legions of Varus, the reign of terror by Sejanus, the invasion of Britain and the great fire of Rome

  • 68 - 69 AD: The Year of the Four Emperors - Galba, Otho and Vitellius and then Vespasian who became the first ruler of the Flavian Dynasty

  • 69AD - 96AD: The Flavian Dynasty - Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian. Notable events of this period included the Destruction of Jerusalem, the Eruption of Vesuvius and the Building of the Colosseum

  • 96192 AD: The Five Good Emperors and the Nervan / Antonine Dynasty - Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. Commodus the son of Marcus Aurelius also reigned during this era. Notable events of this period included Hadrian's Wall, the Pantheon was built in Rome and plague in Rome

  • 192 - 193 AD: The Year of the Five Emperors, turmoil and chaos in Rome. The emperors were Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Pescennius Niger, Septimius Severus, Claudius Albinus Septimius Severus begins the Severan Dynasty. Notable events of this period included the Massacre at Alexandria

  • 193 - 235 AD: The Severan dynasty - Septimius Severus, Caracalla, Geta, Macrinus, Diadumenian (son of Macrinus), Elagabalus and Alexander Severus. The Severan Dynasty marked the end of Pax Romana (Roman peace)

  • 235 - 284 AD: The Crisis of the Third Century was the period in Roman history of Military Anarchy which lasted over 50 years. Not one single Emperor died of natural causes during this time. There were Revolts, civil wars, street fights, fierce foreign enemies, plagues, famines, fire and earthquakes.

  • 238 - 268 AD: The "Barracks Emperors" were all military generals who seized power by force. Taxation was high, the economy was failing and Roman territories were being captured by barbarians and the Roman government was unstable. During this terrible period in Roman history there were 19 usurpers, or pretenders, to the throne but this period is usually known as that of the 'Thirty Tyrants'. During this uncertain era and violent environment people started to turn towards a new religion - Christianity.

  • 268 - 285 AD: The Illyrian Emperors came from Illyria which was a region in the western part of today's Balkan Peninsula. During this period was the worst persecutions of the Christians

  • 285 AD: The Roman Empire was split in half by Diocletian - The Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire aka the Byzantine Empire

  • 285 - 364 AD: The Constantinian dynasty - named after its most famous Emperor, Constantine the Great who instigates a policy of toleration towards the Christians. Constantinople is named the new capital of the Romans

  • 364 - 394 AD: The Valentinian dynasty derives its name from the first of the dynasty's Emperors - Valentinian I. The Empire is invaded by the Visigoths and the Vandals

  • 394 - 476 AD: Theodosius I was the last emperor of both the Eastern and Western Roman Empire. After his death in 395 AD the two parts of the Roman Empire were split permanently. The Western Empire and the period of the Decline or Fall of the Roman Empire and the onset of the Dark Ages. During this period the city of Rome was sacked by the Visigoths in 410 and by the Vandals in 455 signalling the disintegration of Roman authority and the Fall of the Roman Empire

  • 4 September 476: The Western Roman Empire ended officially with the abdication of Romulus Augustus on 4 September 476

Tiberius
Caligula
Claudius
Nero
Vespasian
Titus
Domitian
Caracalla
Diocletian
Constantine the Great
Romulus Augustus
Roman Colosseum
Roman Empire

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